Manual testing interview questions and answers with examples

There are lots of terminology for software testing with a slight difference. That is fair enough to create confusion. So how to prepare for Manual testing interview questions.

Here, I am going to discuss the most important interview questions and answers in manual testing with real-world examples

Difference between Test case and Test scenario

Test Scenario is an activity and the test cases are the conditions used to perform the activity. We can also say a Test Case is an action to be performed or condition to be tested and the Test Scenario defines an Activity to be performed.

Test Scenario will have n conditions and n steps, n ways to perform an activity which means Test Scenario will have multiple test cases.

Let’s understand by a real-time example to test the Login functionality of the application.

Scenario: Check the login of the application only valid users can log in to the application.

For this login scenario tester will execute n number of test cases.


TC1: Login with a valid username and valid password.

TC2: Login with a valid username and an Invalid password.

TC3: Login with an invalid username and valid password.

TC4: Login with an invalid username and invalid password.

Difference between Data verification and data validation.

Verification is a process to ensure Whether we developing the product accordingly or not. In simple words is a process the verify the documents.

Validation is a process to validate the actual and expected output of the software.

Difference between Sanity and smoke testing.

Smoke Testing:

It is also known as Build verification testing. During the smoke, testing will check the major or critical functionalities of the build or application. If it’s working fine then it will move to functional testing otherwise build is rejected and resend to the development team.

The main goal is to save time for QA to perform deep functional testing.

Sanity testing:

Test the major and critical functionalities of the application before releasing it to the client demo. It is performed after many regression tests also are known as a subset of regression testing.

The main goal is to perform random testing in a short time before releasing the application.

Difference between SDLC and STLC.

SDLC(Software Development Life Cycle)

SDLC is a complete process to develop software. SDLC has many phases where the related teamwork is according to the plan.

Phases in SDLC

  • Planning
  • System Analysis and Requirement
  • Design
  • Coding or Development
  • Testing
  • Maintenance

STLC(Software Testing Life Cycle)

STLC is a subset of SDLC. STLC is the complete process to perform testing of software. STLC also has multiple faces that follow by the tester from creating a new bug to closing the bug.

Phases in STLC

  • Requirement Analysis
  • Test Planning
  • Test case development
  • Environment setup
  • Test Execution
  • Test cycle closure

What are Bug, defect, Error, and Failure?

Error: A mistake in code.

Defect: Error finds by the tester.

Bug: Defect accepted by the developer.

Failure: Build does not meet the exact requirements.

Difference between regression testing and retesting.

Regression testing:

  • The regression test is performed to verify that all the existing features of the application working as per the requirement.
  • Regression testing ensures that new changes are not affected by the existing part of the application.
  • Perform testing on all the previous sprints after every new build or code change in the application.


  • Retesting testing ensures test cases that are field in final execution are passed after defect fixing.
  • Perform testing on the failed defects only

Difference between QA and QC.

Quality Assurance(QA)

  • QA is a proactive measure to prevent defects in the application.
  • QA Defines working standards and methodologies to meet the client’s requirements.

Quality Control(QC)

  • QC is a reactive measure to identify the defects in the application.
  • QC verifies all the standards and methodologies that follow while working on the application.

SRS(System Requirement specification)

A Document to describe the feature and behavior of the application. SRS ensures the requirement is fulfilled. It defines the project scope, software and hardware requirements, Functional and nonfunctional requirements.

It covers the following

  • Project scope.
  • Software and hardware requirements.
  • System features(Functional requirements).
  • Non-functional requirement.

What is the Agile process?

A dynamic methodology to develop software. Which content ability to change at any stage.

  • Ability to respond to changes.
  • Agile discovers the customer requirement and how to build a system and change things along the way.
  • It works on iterative and increment methods instead of building all the software at once.

Three main actors of agile methodology

  • Stack holder (Product owner)
  • Scrum Master
  • Team

Step to follow Agile process

  • The product owner develops the set of features (Write a story by client) || Product backlog.
  • Team select features for the current sprint and add them to (Sprint backlog).
    The team start the Development for the current sprint
  • During the sprint
    • Daily meeting to discuss the work status and hurdle.
    • The scrum master will understand the blocking points and be responsible to solve them.
  • Complete the sprint and development of the current sprint send it to the product owner for approval(Sprint Review).
  • Repeat the same for the next sprint.

What is the Requirement traceability matrix?

The requirement traceability matrix is used to trace all the user requirements in the testing doc(test cases).

Requirement Traceability Matrix is a way to trace the requirement with test scenarios and test cases.

Types of traceability Matrix

  • Forward traceability Matrix
  • Backward traceability Matrix
  • Bi-directional traceability Matrix